All groups - Male and female volunteers - White caucasian (we need to minimize genetic heterogeneity which is an important dimension in our research), - age of 18 to 25 - Fluent in English (due to validity of neuropsychological measures) - Both Medicated and Unmedicated Major Depression Current and acute, moderate - severe Depression ADHD Persistent ADHD (onset prior to age 15) Eating Disorders primary DSM-5 anorexia nervosa diagnosis BMI below 18.5 kg/m2 1st episode of illness illness duration < 3 years Alcohol Use Disorder Moderate - Severe Alcohol Abuse (DSM 5) Psychosis Volunteers with first episode schizophreniform illness, schizophrenia OR chronic schizophrenia Healthy Control No history of mental health
Participants with brain injuries including stroke, tumours, epilepsy, neurodegenerative or other neurological disorders. Participants who are deaf or have significant hearing problems or a hearing aid that cannot be removed, blind or vision difficulties (correct near vision of 20/100 or worse in both eyes), have type I or type II diabetes, or are heavily medicated for serious illness other than for the mental health issues under investigation. Participants who declare they are pregnant. Restricted mobility, including inability to lie flat for 1.5 hours.
25 out of 100 persons will develop a mental illness at some point during their life-time. Often these mental disorders are strongly linked to each other. We are interested in understanding the connections between certain behaviours such as negative emotions, difficulties with attention, and unusual experiences. In this project we will investigate biological and social causes of mental disorders linked with such neurobehavioural processes. We expect that the results of this study will develop better treatments for people who have mental health difficulties, by tailoring treatments to precisely target those symptoms that cause suffering in each individual patient. We will use functional and structural neuroimaging, cognitive, emotional as well as environmental data to assess if behavioural/neural processes define subtypes within and if there are similar processes across these diagnoses. We will also identify and characterize predictors of future psychopathology. To do so, we will carry out analysis of up to 900 patients with Major Depression, ADHD, Alcohol Use Disorders, Eating Disorders, Psychosis and healthy controls. We will use advanced statistical methods such as deep learning methods that allows us to make predictions of future psychopathology. The neurobehavioural clusters resulting from this analysis will be validated in a longitudinal population-based genetic and imaging study, the IMAGEN sample of over 2000 participants spanning the period from adolescence to adulthood. Identifying specific neural processes will serve as an alternative model for understanding diagnostic classifications, which will be based on quantifiable neurobiological measures such as genetic and brain imaging data, social and environmental data, thus enabling targeted early intervention, and identification of novel pharmaceutical targets. The research will take place at relevant NHS sites and research centres in either London or Southampton and participants will undergo two research visits, including one brain scan, a blood sample and a range of social and behavioural measures.
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