All patients presenting with neurological disease or cancer presenting to a physician participating in the study.
For additional blood samples: haemoglobin < 11 g/dl significant bleeding tendency
This study is designed to investigate immune responses and inflammation in neurological diseases and cancer by enabling a unique multidisciplinary approach. The nervous system and cancer share an interesting property called "immune privilege", an umbrella term for different mechanisms preventing immune responses. When this immune privilege breaks down in the nervous system, neurological disease occurs. In contrast breakdown of immune privilege in cancer is desirable to allow immune attack and enable immunotherapy. In rare cases, immune responses targeted against both nervous system and cancer result in paraneoplastic neurological disease. This study aims to understand these links to improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of neurological diseases and cancer. This will be facilitated by bringing experts from both fields working together. Anonymized clinical details and samples from patients with neurological disease, cancer, or both, will be collected by the chief investigator and his collaborators. The opportunity to study immune responses against nervous system and cancer antigens in the same clinical cases will provide new insights into disease mechanism and treatment for patients with both conditions. Since some neurological conditions are rare, nationwide recruitment will be needed via collaborative clinical networks already in place. Clinical samples will be collected as additional blood samples or from excess diagnostic samples during routine management of patients. Samples may include whole blood, white blood cells, plasma, serum, biopsies, urine, aspirates, washings and cerebrospinal fluid; they will be stored by the University of Southampton Cancer Sciences Division Tissue Bank. Samples will be analysed using immunological, histological, genetic, molecular, chemical and physical techniques. A very important aspect of the study is indefinite storage of samples to allow re-analysis of archival material and in order to test hypotheses or diagnose
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